See also our Shop/Indoor Climate pages for laboratory analysis of pollutants in your home or office.
Biological contaminants include bacteria, moulds, mildew, viruses, animal dander and cat saliva, house dust, mites, cockroaches, and pollen.
There are many sources of these pollutants. Pollens originate from plants; viruses are transmitted by people and animals; bacteria are carried by people, animals, and soil and plant debris; and household pets are sources of saliva and animal dander. The protein in urine from rats and mice is a potent allergen. When it dries, it can become airborne. Contaminated central air handling systems can become breeding grounds for mould, mildew, and other sources of biological contaminants and can then distribute these contaminants through the home.
By controlling the relative humidity level in a home, the growth of some sources of biologicals can be minimized. A relative humidity of 30-50 percent is generally recommended for homes. Standing water, water-damaged materials, or wet surfaces also serve as a breeding ground for moulds, mildews, bacteria, and insects. House dust mites, the source of one of the most powerful biological allergens, grow in damp, warm environments.
Health Effects From Biological Contaminants
Some biological contaminants trigger allergic reactions, including hypersensitivity pneumonitis, allergic rhinitis, and some types of asthma. Infectious illnesses, such as influenza, measles, and chicken pox are transmitted through the air. Moulds and mildews release disease-causing toxins. Symptoms of health problems caused by biological pollutants include sneezing, watery eyes, coughing, shortness of breath, dizziness, lethargy, fever, and digestive problems.
Allergic reactions occur only after repeated exposure to a specific biological allergen. However, that reaction may occur immediately upon re-exposure or after multiple exposures over time. As a result, people who have noticed only mild allergic reactions, or no reactions at all, may suddenly find themselves very sensitive to particular allergens.
Some diseases, like humidifier fever, are associated with exposure to toxins from micro-organisms that can grow in large building ventilation systems. However, these diseases can also be traced to micro-organisms that grow in home heating and cooling systems and humidifiers. Children, elderly people, and people with breathing problems, allergies, and lung diseases are particularly susceptible to disease-causing biological agents in the indoor air.
Reducing Exposure to Biological Contaminants
* Install and use exhaust fans that are vented to the outdoors in kitchens and bathrooms and vent clothes dryers outdoors.
These actions can eliminate much of the moisture that builds up from everyday activities. There are exhaust fans on the market that produce little noise, an important consideration for some people. Another benefit to using kitchen and bathroom exhaust fans is that they can reduce levels of organic pollutants that vaporize from hot water used in showers and dishwashers.
* Ventilate the attic and crawl spaces to prevent moisture build-up.
Keeping humidity levels in these areas below 50 percent can prevent water condensation on building materials.
* If using cool mist or ultrasonic humidifiers, clean appliances according to manufacturer's instructions and refill with fresh water daily.
Because these humidifiers can become breeding grounds for biological contaminants, they have the potential for causing diseases such as hypersensitivity pneumonitis and humidifier fever. Evaporation trays in air conditioners, dehumidifiers, and refrigerators should also be cleaned frequently.
* Thoroughly clean and dry water-damaged carpets and building materials (within 24 hours if possible) or consider removal and replacement.
Water-damaged carpets and building materials can harbour mould and bacteria. It is very difficult to completely rid such materials of biological contaminants.
* Keep the house clean. House dust mites, pollens, animal dander, and other allergy-causing agents can be reduced, although not eliminated, through regular cleaning.
* Do a Space Clearing (see Services section) to raise the level of energy and clarity in your home. Creepy crawlies hate nothing more than good, strong energy!
* People who are allergic to these pollutants should use allergen-proof mattress encasements, wash bedding in hot (130 F) water, and avoid room furnishings that accumulate dust, especially if they cannot be washed in hot water. Allergic individuals should also leave the house while it is being vacuumed because vacuuming can actually increase airborne levels of mite allergens and other biological contaminants. Using central vacuum systems that are vented to the outdoors or vacuums with high efficiency filters may also be of help.
* Take steps to minimize biological pollutants in basements.
Clean and disinfect the basement floor drain regularly. Do not finish a basement below ground level unless all water leaks are patched and outdoor ventilation and adequate heat to prevent condensation are provided. Operate a dehumidifier in the basement if needed to keep relative humidity levels between 30 - 50 percent.
Droppings or body parts of cockroaches can be asthma triggers.
Cockroaches are commonly found in crowded cities and the southern United States. Certain proteins, called allergens, are found in cockroach faeces and saliva and can cause allergic reactions or trigger asthma symptoms in some individuals. Cockroach allergens likely play a significant role in asthma in many inner-city areas.
Actions You Can Take
An important key to pest management is to free your home of places for pests to hide and to keep them from food and water. Pesticides are toxic for people as well as pests; try to use pest management methods that present the least risk. Some of these methods are:
* Do not leave out food or garbage.
* Store food in airtight containers.
* Clean all food crumbs or spilled liquids right away.
* Wash dishes as soon as you are done using them.
* Keep counters, sinks, tables and floors clean and clear of clutter.
* Fix plumbing leaks and other moisture problems.
* Take piles of boxes, newspapers, and other items where cockroaches may hide out of your home.
* Make sure trash in your home is properly stored in containers with lids that close securely, and remove trash daily.
* Try using poison baits, boric acid, or traps first before using pesticidal sprays.